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The Process of Glycation and Advanced Glycation End Products



 Glycation occurs when a protein or lipid molecule bonds with a blood sugar molecule of glucose, fructose, or galactose in which the controlling enzyme is absent, causing a glycation reaction. After the initial glycation reaction occurs, it is followed by a series of intermediate chemical reactions that result in an advanced glycation end product (AGE).

AGEs have been implicated in the formation of all types of age-related diseases because the glycation reaction end product is high in pro-inflammatory and disease-forming compounds.

AGEs have negative effects on the properties of proteins, lipids, and DNA. AGEs cause cell damage through a process known as cross-linking, resulting in intracellular damage.

Advanced Glycation mg. Methylglyoxal (MG) is the aldehyde form of pyruvic acid. The compound has been linked to the formation of AGEs. It may be a glycation agent similar to the reducing blood sugars glucose, fructose, and galactose, and the mg compound is itself an AGE. Concentrations of mg are higher in diabetics because of raised blood glucose levels. Mg causes damage to LDLs (low-density lipoproteins) during glycation, causing an increased risk of vascular disease. The compound is very effective in the study of universal AGE formation.

 Advanced Glycation CML. Carboxymethyllysine (CML) is an advanced glycation end product associated with exogenous glycation and the production of food. This compound has been widely used in AGE food analysis and is used as an AGE specie in scientific research and study.

Advanced Glycation CEL. Carboxyethyllysine (CEL) is another compound that results from glycation and is considered an AGE. Advanced glycation CEL, CML, and MG are all compatible with cell lysates, blood samples, and purified proteins and therefore appropriate for research and study of AGEs.

Exogenous glycation occurs outside the body through the heating and cooking of fats and sugars together. The resulting food is the AGE, which is ingested but very inefficient for the body to digest.

Endogenous glycation occurs inside the body in the bloodstream when a small amount of the absorbed simple sugars bond with a protein or lipid (a fat molecule). When these fats and sugars come together, the process of glycation begins.

Diseases associated with AGEs include a number of chronic, age-related diseases include type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, hearing loss, cataracts, retinal dysfunction, peripheral neuropathy, and reduced muscle function.