Orthopedic surgery is a medical-surgical procedure involving the musculoskeletal system. Contrary to popular belief, not all orthopedic procedures are actually invasive. An orthopedic surgeon may use combinations of medications, muscle rubs, skeletal manipulation, and surgery in order to relieve the pain and restore the patient’s state of health. Orthopedic surgery provides solutions to a wide range of ailments and conditions such as trauma to the legs, ankles or back, infections causing pressure or muscle or bone strain, degenerative disease, or a tumor invading the muscle system.
Types of Procedures Performed by Orthopedic Surgeons
Orthopedic surgeons perform procedures such as knee replacement surgery, hip resurfacing procedures, arthroscopy, hip replacement surgery, BAK Cage fusion, surgery of the spine (laminectomy-discectomy), kyphoplasty, artificial spinal disc replacement, shoulder replacement, cervical artificial disc replacement surgery, and patella-femoral joint replacement surgery.
This procedure is also known as knee arthroplasty, which is performed to help in relieving pain and restoring function in severely damaged or injured knee joints. In this procedure, the orthopedic surgeon cuts away the injured cartilage and bone from the shinbone, thighbone, and kneecap. These damaged bone and cartilage are replaced with an artificial joint made of high-grade polymers and plastics and metal alloys. This surgical procedure attempts to replicate the knee’s natural ability to glide and roll as it bends.
Hip Resurfacing Procedures
In this procedure, the damaged hip ball is capped and reshaped using a metal prosthesis. A metal prosthesis similar to what is used in conventional hip replacement is fitted to the damaged hip socket. Hip resurfacing is believed to be a better solution for younger people because the bones are left more intact and it can make it easier to perform a total hip replacement procedure if needed later on. This procedure is more difficult technically, and it requires a larger incision. It also has a higher risk of complications. People with impaired kidney function, osteoporosis, large areas of dead bone, known metal hypersensitivities, and diabetes are not allowed for this procedure.
This is a procedure used for the diagnosis and treatment of joint problems. A thin tube with a fiber-optic camera is passed through the joint via a small incision. The view inside the joint is transmitted and projected to a video or monitor screen. This procedure allows the orthopedic surgeons to see the inside of the joint without having to make a large cut. Wisconsin orthopedic surgeons can repair some types of joint damage during arthroscopy by inserting pencil-thin surgical instruments through additional small cuts or incisions.
Hip Replacement Surgery
This procedure is also known as total hip arthroplasty. The procedure involves the removal of a damaged hip joint which needs to be replaced with an artificial joint or prosthesis. Hip replacement implants used in this procedure are biocompatible. This means that over time, the implants will be accepted by the body and they are made to resist degradation, wear, and corrosion. This orthopedic surgical procedure is done for people with damaged hip joints, caused by arthritis or an injury. Physical therapy or rehabilitation is needed after hip replacement surgery to relieve pain and restore some range of function and motion of the hip joint.
BAK Cage Fusion
In cases of severe disc degeneration and narrowing, BAK cage fusion surgery is performed by placing a small cylinder between the bones of the spine to hold them apart. The bone grows in and around the holes of the BAK cage, holding it in place. This procedure relieves the pressure on the nerves of the spine. The patients are able to return to their active lifestyle and control their back pain.
Surgery of the Spine
Laminectomy is the surgical procedure involving the removal of the lamina or the spongy tissue between the discs in the spine while discectomy is the surgical procedure that involves the removal of an injured or damaged disc. The incision will be made on the back over the affected area of the spine. Disk and bone will be removed from over the nerve roots to relieve pressure on affected nerves.
This surgical procedure is also called balloon kyphoplasty, used as a treatment option for spinal compression fractures which are painful. Such compression is caused by a spine bone collapse. The procedure is done by placing a large needle through the skin and into the spinal bone. Real-time X-ray images are used as a guide for the doctor to accurately target the affected lower back area. A balloon is placed through the needle, into the bone and then inflated, which allows the restoration of the vertebral height.
Artificial Spinal Disc Replacement
This procedure is a spinal disc procedure utilizing an anterior approach to replace a painful, worn-out intervertebral disc on the lumbar spine with an artificial disc or a metal / plastic prosthesis. This is primarily recommended for patients with isolated one-level degenerative disc disease.
This surgical procedure allows orthopedic surgeons to replace the humerus or the ends of the damaged upper arm bone and the scapula or the shoulder bone, capping them with metal or plastic surfaces. Cement will hold in place shoulder joint components or they may be made with material that allows new bone to grow into the joint component over time to hold it in place without cement.
Cervical Artificial Disc Replacement Surgery
Cervical artificial disc replacement surgery makes use of the anterior approach to the cervical spine which is similar to the approach used in discectomy and fusion surgeries. It involves the complete removal of the affected disc including any bone spurs or disc fragments. The disc space is jacked up to its prior normal disc height to help relieve pressure on the nerves.
Patellofemoral Joint Replacement Surgery
This surgical procedure replaces the kneecap (patella) area of the joint. This is not so common than total joint knee replacement, as the patella generally bears only a minimal amount of weight in most patients. Like in joint knee replacement surgery, physical therapy follows the surgery to restore proper function to the knee.